ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file. dows 7, but I am interested in using OpenSSH the way it's meant to be, and the main problem is that I can't find where its config-file-searching algorithm is documented. SSH has two protocols it may use, protocol 1 and protocol 2. UseDNS no # By setting this to no, connection speed can increase. Essentially, Remote Login starts an SSH server on a Mac, which includes the ability to accept incoming SSH connections, and is the secure replacement for telnet. ] My ssh log appear to the screen which i want it to be log to /var/log/sshd. SSH public-key authentication relies on asymmetric cryptographic algorithms that generate a pair of separate keys (a key pair), one "private" and the other "public". Ansible Templates are very useful for configuring a system with lots of changes per configuration file. There may be cases where a support pack does not update sys:\system\ssh\sshd_config , to show newly available configuration options. and the config file "sshd_config". Files /etc/ssh/sshd_config Contains configuration data for sshd(8). This can be done by editing /etc/ssh/sshd_config and changing the Port configuration. Follow these steps to enable SFTP access for any user who does not use Clish cli. swp file + try your edit again, using vi. $ sudo /etc/ssh/sshd_config ~/ssh_config_backup. * /var/log/sshd. This will install the OpenSSH Client software in Windows 10. SyslogFacility LOCAL0. ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file. Add the following lines at the end of the file. Other configuration options are shown in /etc/ssh/sshd_config. Gaia Processes and Daemons. 258 / - annotate - [select for diffs], Thu Apr 25 14:55:04 2019 UTC (5 months, 4 weeks ago) by tron Branch: MAIN Changes since 1. even though a failure entry is recorded in the /var/log/messages file. Just delete the /etc/ssh/. sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config Here are some suggestions for default settings that you may want to change. Download putty. Session log file option W M L. Make sure not to get them mixed up. Install it by running the following command in your terminal: sudo apt-get install openssh-server -y. Open your /etc/ssh/sshd_config file and add the following lines:. 9p1 on Fedora 29. exe -d This will run sshd in interactive mode under currently logged on user (typically as admin). There may be vast differences between OS and service. How can I change the setting so sshd will stop sending logs to /var/log/messages?. The configuration file uses group names, not UUIDs. 5 # openbsd - openssh 5. At the moment of this writing, it doesn't start automatically. Open the file now with administrative privileges: sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config You will see a file with quite a few options and, hopefully (depending on. sshd can be configured using command-line options or a configuration file (by default sshd_config(5)); command-line options override values specified in the configuration file. The ssh_config client configuration file has the following format. Using SSH public-key authentication to connect to a remote system is a robust, more secure alternative to logging in with an account password or passphrase. Install it by running the following command in your terminal: sudo apt-get install openssh-server -y. The important log in case of client installation in the agent is the ccmsetup. sshd rereads its configuration file when it receives a hangup signal, SIGHUP, by executing itself with the name and options it was started with, e. sh as the default shell:. For example, to only allow root to log in from 192. 5 : spawn /bin/echo `/bin/date` from %h >> /var/log/ssh. Configuring SSHD on the Server. Today, in this guide, we are going to see how to manage log files using Logrotate on Linux. OpenSSH is installed in C:\Windows\System32 which makes configuration changes - i. Defending against brute force ssh attacks. exe; ssh-keygen. If a service is requested under a certain name but no unit configuration file is found, systemd looks for a SysV init script by the same name (with the. 32, add this line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config: AllowUsers [email protected] The following commands shows the current path setting, and add the default OpenSSH installation folder to it. To deny root logins, use this setting in the server configuration file. slavov SSH, or Secure Shell, is a protocol used to securely log onto remote systems. Even better, for those who are familiar with. Fail2Ban is able to reduce the rate of incorrect authentications attempts however it cannot eliminate the risk that weak authentication presents. The file contains keyword-value pairs, one per line, with keywords being case insensitive. Disable Protocol 1. Note that this is different from the ssh_config file, which specifies client-side defaults. Configuring SSHD on the Server. txt and log. Now the key has been loaded as in the figure above. The format of this file is described above. A different file path can be specified by using the -f option when launching the daemon. up vote 3 down vote. Configuring the default shell for OpenSSH in Windows The default command shell provides the experience a user sees when connecting to the server using SSH. Where myfile. Most of the suggestions outlined below rely on configuration changes that can be implemented in your sshd_config file. 7+) File: /etc/ssh/sshd_config. An issue was discovered in gsi-openssh-server 7. Install the terminal emulator PuTTY. the config file c:\windows\system32\OpenSSH\sshd_config; the log file c:\windows\system32\OpenSSH\logs\sshd. It is highly recommended to use SFTP because data is transferred over encrypted connection using SSH-tunnel on port 22. This tutorial shows the installation and configuration of Fail2Ban with firewalld on CentOS 7. Another nice-to-have goal is to make the configuration generic enough so it could be reused among servers without sacrificing security or configurability. OpenSSH certificates can be used for authentication either using ssh-agent or by specifying the CertificateFile option in the client configuration file. Citrix recommends that you use the console for changes relating to the SSH daemon. Login banner on Centos shows some warning messages when ssh session connected to CentOS Server. Click File->Load Private Key, load the file "id_rsa" from Step 5. When you create your keys with ssh-keygen or ssh-keygen2 you are prompted for a password. Notice that journalctl -u sshd reports an error, and that the last line of /etc/ssh/sshd_config containing the ciphers is concatenated with another directive for the MACs Actual results: sshd. The default for the per-user configuration file is ~/. ssh/config (per user). log file looks as follows:. The log file that we are changing permissions to is designed to log the actions of the ssh server. Here you have to edit file and write your filename and remove hash mark. log: RDP feature for RWA. If you are performing a durable change to the configuration, it should be done in the image - because if you start a new container, the old configuration will be there again, and your changes will be lost. Format of SSH client config file ssh_config. The file format and configuration options are described in sshd_config5. There are much better logging tools available and in a later tutorial I will go over how to use them, but for the meantime it's important to set this up. Use this group policy to configure any secure shell properties defined in the sshd_config file by group policy. Open /etc/ssh/sshd_config with a text editor, and look for "Protocol" field. Note: The host-key-check option must be set in Bolt config because the StrictHostKeyChecking OpenSSH configuration value is ignored. PasswordAuthentication no # Do not allow password authentication. To log ssh authentication to the messages file, add the following entry to the /etc/syslog. From Linux, I try to log in with: ssh -i id_rsa [email protected] Configure the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file The /etc/ssh/sshd_config file is the system-wide configuration file for OpenSSH which allows you to set options that modify the operation of the daemon. In other words, openssh-server consists openssh-client. However, the sshd service is producing an unruly log file, sshd. below are the contents i have in syslog. Any change to the /nsconfig/sshd_config file requires restarting the NetScaler appliance or a SIGHUP signal for the /usr/sbin/sshd process. $ tail -f /var/log/auth. but the use of a config file with IdentityFile is pretty much your only option if you want to specify which identity to use for any git commands. It will try to fit the actual value to the type you are comparing it to. ssh/config and if you wish to use sudo (for example later in cron with rsync), this file must be also accessible as /root/. •Logging on with the SCP tool will let them copy files to/from our server. The file contains keyword-value pairs, one per line. Real-world configuration examples. Enable Debug logging (select Debug channel, click "Enable log" on right menu) File based logging. HPUX : how to redirect the sshd logging in a File Changes which need to be done in sshd. This post is an and updated and follow-up on my previous post on how to install SSH server on Ubuntu. config file must be updated to reflect the new name. Each ftp session is logged. If you don't see the SSH key you want to use, add it by entering ssh-add followed by the path to the private key file: $ ssh-add ~/. ssh/*, /etc/ssh/ssh_config, and /etc/ssh/sshd_config There are no required changes to any of these files. There are many features for this protocol and these can be made or changed according to the users needs. FILES /etc/ssh/sshd_config Contains configuration data for sshd(8). [[email protected] ~]# vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config Change this line: #PermitRootLogin yes Edit to this: PermitRootLogin no Ensure that you are logged into the box with another shell before restarting sshd to avoid locking yourself out of the server. Using the vSphere Web Client, open a console connection to the VDP appliance and log in using root and the password configured when the appliance was deployed. How to Start the OpenSSH Server in Windows 10. Setup OpenSSH Key Authentication (Passwordless) on Ubuntu 16. from "man sshd_config" ClientAliveInterval Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the client, sshd will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the client. Warning: If you accidentally misconfigure your SSH configuration file, navigate to the following link in your web browser (where example. Bitvise SSH Server: Secure file transfer, terminal shell, and tunneling. For example, you can disallow the root account to login, set the port number, protocol version and a lot of other features. I just spent 30 minutes trying to get login via public key working on a new server, and here’s a few tips that I wish I knew earlier : SSH has a verbose mode i didn’t know about - just add the -v option. As a valued partner and proud supporter of MetaCPAN, StickerYou is happy to offer a 10% discount on all Custom Stickers, Business Labels, Roll Labels, Vinyl Lettering or Custom Decals. Like almost every other server software package, SSH is controlled by a number of directives in its configuration file. d/sshd, including changing the location of the configuration file. you can paste your /var/log/messages log entries while try to ssh to the box. In this case, user home directory should have maximum 755 rights. OpenSSH has two different sets of configuration files: one for client programs (ssh, scp, and sftp) and one for the server service (sshd). This file can be edited using your favorite editor as root. SSH user as per sigle posible config from the Dashbord is “sshd”. This configuration will allow a system user to access their home directory using sFTP and to upload and download files with their account. The first line specifies that syslog info messages will go to the file /var/log/messages (it is necesary to create the files first) and all kind of auth. I have my keys in ~/. It can be helpful to look at the examples given here to see how a service is running, where it put its pidfile, how to call the start and stop methods for a service, etc. The default is 0, indicating that these messages will not be sent to the client. pub) into a text file called authorized_keys in ~\. however this configuration seems to only log the activity when ever root logs into the Linux machine using. If you can, download (or copy the text from) your sshd_config file, and your authorized_keys file. SSH_CONFIG(5) BSD File Formats Manual SSH_CONFIG(5) NAME top ssh_config — OpenSSH SSH client configuration files DESCRIPTION top ssh(1) obtains configuration data from the following sources in the following order: 1. /usr/sbin/sshd. Keyword Research: People who searched sshd_config log file also searched. Configure Secure Shell Daemon (SSHD) to support smart card-only authentication Users can use their smart card to authenticate over SSH to the local computer or to remote computers that are correctly configured. The main source of configuration for the SSH daemon itself is in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file. The server configuration file is located at /etc/ssh/sshd_config. This page is intended to show how to modify configuration and other files on systems. So, no SSH access for you! “But I need to change my configuration over the lifetime of my service; for instance to add new virtual hosts!”. 1p1 for the screenshots. The sshd_config file refers to the main configuration file that allows the user to make the changes in the features of SSH protocol. openssh-server: This is the package you need if you want to allow remote logins via SSH to your system. To see Debug logs in EventViewer, do the following: Ensure sshd_config has logging level at DEBUG or above In Eventviewer,. To do this, you edit the "sshd_config" file located on your server currently at "C:\Program Files\OpenSSH-Win64. To use the log file, the permissions on the "var" directory must be changed. " Remember this is subject to change if you update to a newer version of PowerShell Core. To start the service without installing it, use the service command: service start mkssecuresh -remove. If a configuration file is given on the command line, the system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) will be ignored. a guest Jul 11th, load_server_config: filename /etc/ssh/sshd_config. log: RDP feature for RWA. Note: By default, the OpenSSH server does not allow forwarded X connections. The plugin then normalizes the information to create events containing the data fields from the text. I've created a new one but seems is not working. 2) Enable Auth in sshd_config file. For example, to only allow root to log in from 192. sudo apt-get install openssh-server I think will install the ssh server and set up a default config for sshd. Arguments that contain spaces are to be enclosed in double quotes ("). On Windows hosts, restart Docker. Secure the SSH configuration file. Make sure not to get them mixed up. /usr/sbin/sshd. It will try to fit the actual value to the type you are comparing it to. The file contains keyword-value pairs, one per line. In theory, you can get a copy of the host key from your system administrator via some secure method, such as in-person communications or perhaps via cryptographically signed email, before the first time you log into a host. In an elevated shell run: cd c:\windows\system32\OpenSSH ssh-keygen -A. log file looks as follows:. Uncomment the line and choose a port number. 5p1-1 installer for both x86 and x64 binaries. properties file, where it should be created and some sample configuration nodes. log; Now we need to create host keys. 58 I am still prompted for the password. sshd(8) reads configuration data from /etc/ssh/sshd_config (or the file specified with -f on the command line). Setup OpenSSH Key Authentication (Passwordless) on Ubuntu 16. Re: plink ssh not working with multiple commands passed in a file. This is the default option; in this mode PuTTY will not create a log file at all. This is a setting right in sshd’s configuration file. Ansible Templates are very useful for configuring a system with lots of changes per configuration file. Add this line to the file: ClientAliveInterval 60. Apr 29 10:07:44 www sshd: subsystem request for sftp failed, subsystem not found Cause Path to SFTP server is not properly configured in SSH daemon config on the Plesk server. The options are: ‘None’. Allow/Deny Users and Groups: To allow or deny any user or group on OpenSSH, first edit configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config in your favorite editor and do changes as following examples. Modify the sshd config file: Changing the location of sshd log, this will leave How to extend root filesystem - Usint DRD, Ignite Changing the FTP umask;. Configure the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file The /etc/ssh/sshd_config file is the system-wide configuration file for OpenSSH which allows you to set options that modify the operation of the daemon. The SSHD uses only one configuration file, which can be found in /etc/ssh/sshd_config. As such, the installer and sshd_config file were updated to support this change. You can also use this group policy to edit or remove secure shell properties defined in the sshd_config file. In the config, I configured logs as follows : SyslogFacility AUTH LogLevel DEBUG How can I debug my situation without using deep network sniffing ?. Each time the rule is satisfied, the current date and the clients hostname %h is appended to the ssh. cfg file provided with Bering-uClibc looks like this: LRP="root config etc local modules iptables dhcpcd keyboard shorwall ulogd dnsmasq dropbear sh-httpd weblet" The package dropbear. After making changes to the config file, type the following command run syntax check on the configuration file, enter: $ sudo /usr/sbin/sshd -t OR. Shawn Babinyecz Sep 30, 2014 10:24 AM ( in response to Archit ) I found a way using openssh for windows. In addition, add the syslog facility and log level options to the sftp subsystem configuration. d/sshd, including changing the location of the configuration file. The file /etc/ssh/ssh_config is the global configuration file for the clients. SFTP Server 2016 (secure file transfer on SSH) protocol. To start the service without installing it, use the service command: service start mkssecuresh -remove. Detailed sshd_config file format. Using vendor SSH tools with Quest Authentication Services. Managing many configuration files can be tedious. Next, we’ll need to edit the sshd_config file itself. The log begins by identifying the user and specifying allowable actions such as being able to change the session umask and being able to issue chown and chgrp commands. For example, to only allow root to log in from 192. Once you have made your changes, be sure to save and exit the sshd_config file and restart the SSH server with: sudo service. service unit file. Create sub directory. Open the sshd_config file (this time as sudo, because you can no longer log into the server as root. The client configuration settings can be found in /etc/ssh/ssh_config (system wide) or ~/. OpenSSH has two different sets of configuration files: one for client programs (ssh, scp, and sftp) and one for the server service (sshd). Run the Cygwin setup. me Alternately, you can edit the configuration file yourself, adding a line like so:. SSHD configuration. The file contains keyword-argument pairs, one per line. Removed protocol 2 setting as it is deprecated. Hi, Thanks for your reply. The default LogLevel is INFO. Question : How to Check ssh logs? Answer: For example if your box is hacked and you want to know who has did that First check the last logged existing in /etc/password with command lastlogs [[email protected] ~]# lastlog Username Port From Latestroot pts/1 wsp243101wss. If you are performing a durable change to the configuration, it should be done in the image - because if you start a new container, the old configuration will be there again, and your changes will be lost. properties file, users can add configurations that are not available in the UniFi Controller at the moment. Configuring SSHD on the Server. System-wide SSH configuration information is stored in the /etc/ssh/ directory:. target target unit to the sshd. only allow certain AD groups to log in? In your SSHd config file (/etc/ssh/sshd_config) you would set the directive AllowGroups to an AD group that you set up. For information about the configuration directives used in this file, you may view the appropriate manual page with the following command, issued at a terminal prompt:. An alternative way to see the filter name and log path is from the command line:. Every time someone tries to log in, it executes a command and returns a dynamic authorized_keys file. However, the sshd service is producing an unruly log file, sshd. For instance, with the SSHD (daemon, to accept SSH connections from a remote machine), you have a config file that governs the behavior of the daemon, including MACs, etc. First we'll make sure it will support SFTP in a chrooted environment. log that has grown to be 75GB over two days and maxed out my C: drive. d) will be executed if the outcome of the filter process is true. Configure the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file The /etc/ssh/sshd_config file is the system-wide configuration file for OpenSSH which allows you to set options that modify the operation of the daemon. The log file that we are changing permissions to is designed to log the actions of the ssh server. My question is that how to set the specified ssh log file in ssh client pc,instead of sshd log file in ssh server pc? Here is my try in ssh client pc. That is when you are talking about sshd that binds to port 22, as in the "usual" with Linux/FreeBSD/etc. This file can be edited using your favorite editor as root. log which only contains messages coming from sshd you have to. 9k(config)# no ssh cipher-mode weak 9k(config)# end Temporary Option 2. Click Add Public Key. The second file is the new name for the copied version of the file, including any path information for where the copy should be located. What is Fail2Ban. OpenSSH is the premier connectivity tool for remote login with the SSH protocol. ssh_host_dsa_key — The DSA private key used by the sshd daemon. Managing many configuration files can be tedious. Any line starting with "#" will be ignored by sshd. d/ssh restart Deliverables: 1. Logging facilities. 6 Linux kernel has the ability to log events such as system calls and file access. sshauthorized_keys. conf file is configured so that messages to the AUTH facility will be logged to some file. log how to log the sshd to /var/log? | The UNIX and Linux Forums. The following should give you only ssh related log lines. ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file. In above file /media/11361B1123123634/ is my encrypted USB drive, so the upper two connections works only if the drive is mounted. This file can be edited using your favorite editor as root. #vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config Locate the following line: Subsystem sftp /usr/sbin/sftp-server Add the following parameters "-l INFO -f AUTH" at the end: Subsystem sftp /usr/sbin/sftp-server -l INFO -f AUTH. Ansible Templates are very useful for configuring a system with lots of changes per configuration file. For example, if you want to send to the client trying to connect. FileZilla Client is a fast and reliable cross-platform FTP, FTPS and SFTP client with lots of useful features and an intuitive graphical user interface. You can specify command-line options to override their configuration file equivalents. Client side Set LogLevel to DEBUG (or DEBUG2/DEBUG3 for higher levels of logging) in ssh_config. PermitRootLogin no After the changes are made to the ssh configuration file, restart the sshd daemon to make the changes reflect. When I log in with ssh I give it the user "sshd" and then the passw and I log in. man ssh_config. service should be running. 21 is replaced by the real IP address or hostname of the system and /home/demo represents the directory into which the file should be copied. nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config. A different file path can be specified by using the -f option when launching the daemon. This file is used by the SSH client. Make sure not to get them mixed up. OpenSSH allows you to set up per-user configuration file where you can store different SSH options for each remote machine you connect to. FileZilla Client is a fast and reliable cross-platform FTP, FTPS and SFTP client with lots of useful features and an intuitive graphical user interface. Posted by Jesse Cole on December 3, It has the following setting in its configuration file. Command-line options take precedence over configuration files. If one is matched, it becomes the ini-file and its directory becomes the rootdir. This is explained later. You can modify the /etc/rc. ssh/id_rsa [email protected] uptime and it works omg sweet. Basically, if we don't use chroot, we can rely on the default configuration and the only thing needed is to allow logging from sftp-server by adding command-line arguments to the Subsystem sftp line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:. This file should be writable by root only, but it is recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable. To deny root logins, use this setting in the server configuration file. /usr/sbin/sshd. Hi, Thanks for your reply. To make it easy to add your key to the new cloud servers you create, upload the public key to your cloud account by following these steps: Log in to the Cloud Control Panel. log file which isn't. If this configuration parameter is set, then log messages for a request go to this file. Default sshd syslog facility is AUTH, so it will be logged in syslog to /var/log/messages. First we’ll make sure it will support SFTP in a chrooted environment. ssh_host_dsa_key — The DSA private key used by sshd. Once done, immediately delete the current key, create a new key pair and repeat the key process (because I want you to send me the current key file, and I am just some stranger from the internet!). Using vendor SSH tools with Quest Authentication Services. Online Documentation OpenSSH Home Page — The OpenSSH home page containing further documentation, frequently asked questions, links to the mailing lists, bug reports, and other useful resources. At this point, any configuration changes can easily be applied by editing the file /etc/ssh/sshd_config. Within the command line, execute ‘service sshd restart’ to. An issue was discovered in gsi-openssh-server 7. OK, I Understand. Web manual pages are available from OpenBSD for the following commands. secshd automatically rereads its configuration file when it detects that the configuration has been changed. You can add or change the sshd_config file via vim command: Type: #vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config. Here is my sshd_config file:. slogin is another name for this program. Ansible Templates are very useful for configuring a system with lots of changes per configuration file. This logging is configured in /etc/sshd/sshd_config. Restart the SSHD server either using the command prompt in administrative mode or using the services. 2017/05 中旬ぐらいにAzure上のWindows ServerにOpenSSHをインストールしてSSH Over HTTPで対象のサーバとSSHを確立して、SSHポート転送でRDPをフォワードするという方法の記事を書きました。. slavov SSH, or Secure Shell, is a protocol used to securely log onto remote systems. The OpenSSH server configuration is typically called something like /etc/ssh/sshd_config. RPM or yum) does. Before opening new session, go to Session -> Logging Choose log type. Server configuration. This is most often not what you want to do, though. Elliptic-Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange avoids all known feasible cryptanalytic attacks, and modern web browsers now prefer ECDHE over the original, finite field, Diffie-Hellman. Instead of following this procedure, you can also stop the Docker daemon and restart it manually with the debug flag -D. ##### Primary configuration settings ##### ##### # This configuration file is used to manage the behavior of the Salt Minion. sshd rereads its configuration file when it receives a hangup signal, SIGHUP , by executing itself with the name and options it was started with, e. closed in the log file. To do this, you edit the "sshd_config" file located on your server currently at "C:\Program Files\OpenSSH-Win64. In an elevated shell run: cd c:\windows\system32\OpenSSH ssh-keygen -A. How do I change the sshd logging file location on CentOS? sshd logs to /var/log/messages instead of /var/log/secure. log To restart all services. /etc/ssh/ssh_config Systemwide configuration file. sss_ssh_authorizedkeys asks SSSD to get the user's public keys from FreeIPA server 4. If you don't know where that is, edit your Moodle config. The file written to will always be called log. Essentially, Remote Login starts an SSH server on a Mac, which includes the ability to accept incoming SSH connections, and is the secure replacement for telnet. To use the log file, the permissions on the "var" directory must be changed. The format of this file is described above. ini file: The log settings are contained in the php. The CFG_FILE is a customized sshd file. ssh/config (per user). /usr/sbin/sshd Starting up sshd directly. CVE-2015-8325, found by Shayan Sadigh, via Colin Watson. New key pairs can be generated as explained in SSH keys#Generating an SSH key pair in addition, or to replace, those originally created. SSH_CONFIG(5) BSD File Formats Manual SSH_CONFIG(5) NAME top ssh_config — OpenSSH SSH client configuration files DESCRIPTION top ssh(1) obtains configuration data from the following sources in the following order: 1. If you are behind a proxy and are unable to connect to your SSH host, you may. Save and exit by holding down ‘ctrl‘ and ‘x‘ 6. SEE ALSO sftp (1), ssh (1), sshd_config (5), sshd (8) T. Because of the potential for abuse, this file must have strict permissions: read/write for the user, and not writable by others. The OpenSSH configuration files reside in the directory /etc/ssh/. The (Practically) Ultimate OpenSSH/Keychain Howto Best of ENP: With OpenSSH you can ensure that the bits flowing over your network are wrapped in strong encryption.